(depressive disorder, PPD) (double depression), (Chronic depression)

A mild but long term form of depression.

Dysthymia is defined as low mood occurring for at least two years, along with at least two other symptoms of depression.

Types of Dysthymia

1. Anxious dysthymia

2. Anergic dysthymia

1. Anxious dysthymia

Low self esteem, undirected restlessness, interpersonal rejection sensitivity, help- seeking, suicidal attempts.

Better respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (SSRIs)

2. Anergic dysthymia

Low energy, hypersomnia, anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure)

Better respond to treatment with agents that increase norepinephrine or dopamine.


1. Stress

2. Alteration in neurotransmitter siignaling

3. Anxiousness

4. History of mental disorder

5. Environmental factor

6. Psychological factor

Stress in childhood and adulthood. Example; isolation and lack of support

7. Biological factors

Sleep abnormalities; certain neurotransmitter (serotonin/and regulate mood)

Sign and symptoms

1. Negativity

2. Oversleeping /lack of sleep

3. Weight gain

4. Reduce self esteem

5. Avoid socialization

6. Reduce productivity

7. Feeling of sadness

8. Guilt and worries about past

9. Difficultly making discussion

Diagnostic evaluation for Dysthymia DSM-5

1. Depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, as indicated by either subjective account or observation by others, for at least two years.

2. Presence while depressed, of two or more symptoms of following;

1. Poor appetite or overeating

2. Insomnia or hypersomnia

3. Low energy or fatigue

4. Low self- esteem

5. Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions.

6. Feeling of hopelessness and despair.

Psychopathology of Dysthymia

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