Intravenous Fluids Type - NS, RL, DNS, D5

Intravenous Fluid - Types of IV Fluids and Their Uses


The intravenous (IV) is the fastest way to deliver fluid replacement throughout the body as they are introduced directly into the circulatory system and thus quickly distributed.


Intravenous fluid drip used to administer electrolytes that contain selected vitamins and nutrients, that correct imbalance electrolyte administered directly into the vein; venous circulation.


Check out here what iv cannulation sites for intravenous medication administration are.


IV Fluids Uses


IV Fluids is administered through intravenous (iv) route of administration, commonly used for rehydration or to provide selected nutrition for those who are unable to take food or water by mouth.

IV Fluids helps restore salt and electrolyte levels in the patient’s body.

Know here what is the angle for intravenous injection?

Types of Intravenous Fluids


Intravenous fluids are classified into two types-


1. Crystalloids solution

2. Colloids solution


1. Crystalloids Solution


Crystalloid is a solution in which crystals may form but are able to diffuse across the cellular membrane.


Example of crystalloids solutions-


a. Normal saline

b. Ringer lactate

c. Dextrose5%


2. Colloids Solution


Colloids are glue-like substances, such as protein or starch, or a substance used as a plasma expander in place of blood.


Example of Colloids solution-


a. Dextran

b. Albumin

c. Hetastarch


Types of Intravenous Solution


Intravenous solutions are three types-


1. Hypotonic solution


In hypotonic solutions, water will move from the extracellular space into cells. This result, cell to expand size and burst.

Example of hypotonic solution are; 0.45% saline, 0.25% saline, 2.5% dextrose solution.


Hypotonic solutions are commonly used to give fluids intravenously to hospitalized patients to treat or avoid dehydration.


2. Isotonic solution

In an isotonic solution, No movement of water between them.  Same salt concentration as cells and blood.  this result, Cell neither swells nor shrinks.

Examples of isotonic solution are; 0.9% normal saline and lactated ringers.


3. Hypertonic solution

In a hypertonic solution, Movement of water from cells into extracellular space. A result, Cell shrinks.


For example, hypertonic solutions are applied for soaking wounds. It promotes healing in necrotic, draining, or infected wounds.

Examples of hypertonic IV solutions are; 3% Normal Saline (3% NaCl), 5% Sodium Chloride, D5 in 0.9% normal saline, and D5 in lactated ringers. 


Note - Osmolarity of Body; 285-295 mOsm/kg


Check out here types of iv cannula and know the parts of iv cannula.


How many Types of Fluids are given Intravenously?


Intravenous fluids are given through a drip into the direct vein. It is administered to correct the electrolyte or acid-base balance in the body. 

These are -


IV Fluid

Intravenous bottles

1. NS- Normal saline water


NS 0.9%; 0.9g NaCl in each 100ml of NS.


Uses of Normal Saline water


a. Used in dehydration

b. Used for wound washing

c. Used to given injection

d. Used in an accident and in Diabetic patient


2. RL- Ringer Lactate Solution, Hartmann’s Solution, Ringer Solution,  Sodium Lactate Solution

Ringer lactate solution consists of-


1. Sodium lactate

2. NaCl - sodium chloride

3. Kcl - potassium chloride and

4. Cacl2 - calcium chloride present in RL


Uses of Ringer Lactate solution


a. Used in Diarrhea

b. Used in dehydration

 c. Used in burn, accident

 d. Used in dizziness, hypotension


3. DNS- Dextrose Sodium Chloride Solution (D – Dextrose: Glucose)


5g Dextrose in each 100ml of NS.


Uses of DNS


a. Used in Dehydration

b. Used in Hypoglycemia

c. Used in insulin shock


Note - It is not used in Diabetic Patients.


Types of DNS solution


 D5, D10, D25, D50, D5NS, D5LR


4. Mannitol Solution (Osmotic Diuretic)


20 gm mannitol in 100ml of solution


Uses of Mannitol solution


a. Used in Diuretics

b. Used in Oligourea

 c. Used in Oedema

 d. Used in intraocular pressure

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