Angles of Administration of Injection - ID, IM, SC, IV

Injection Type and Sites


An injection is the introduction of a drug, vaccine, liquid, and another therapeutic agent into the body using a needle and syringe.

A needle and syringe are used for an injection, it is a way of administering a liquid to a patient.


Check out here parts of syringe and needle.


Types of Injection


The four most frequently used types of injection are-


1. Intravenous Injection


The abbreviation of intravenous injection is IV. This route is the fastest way to send medication and deliver fluids directly into a vein.

Intravenous (IV) injection or infusion; medication sent directly into vein using a needle or tube.


Get here details on intravenous drug administration; IV push, IV infusion.



2. Intramuscular Injection


The abbreviation of intramuscular injection is IM. This route is used for the Injection of a substance into muscle.


3. Subcutaneous Injection


The abbreviation for subcutaneous injection is SC.


For SC injection, the short needle is used to give medication into the layer between the skin and muscle.


4. Intradermal Injection


The abbreviation of Intradermal injection is ID. This route is used to deliver medication into the dermis or the skin layer underneath the epidermis.


Check out what are medical needle types and sizes are used for the administration of injection?



The angle of Injection for Administration


There are recommended degrees of angle for the administration of the injection -

Angles of Administration of Injection

 1. Intramuscular (IM) injection


Angle for IM injection at a 90-degree, administer into the muscle.


2. Subcutaneous (SC) injection


Angle for SC injection at a 45-degree or 90 degree.


3. Intravenous (IV) injection


IV route is used to send medication directly into the vein using a needle at a 25-degree angle.



4. Intradermal (ID) injection


Angle for ID injection at 10 to15-degree angles, inject medication into the dermis with the needle.



Understand Layers of Skin



There are mainly 3 layers of skin-


1. Epidermis


Epidermis is the outer layer of skin, that visible to your eye.



2. Dermis


Dermis layer of skin lies beneath the epidermis and above subcutaneous layer.



3. Subcutaneous/ Hypodermis


Subcutaneous layer directly below the dermis, it is the innermost layer of the skin, attach to skeletal muscle and bone.

skin anatomy

Sites of Injection Administration



1. Site for Intramuscular Injection – IM Route


IM injection sites are –


1. Deltoid Muscle


The deltoid muscle is the muscle of the upper Arm, this site is most typically used for vaccines.


To find the correct site to give the injection is two finger widths below the acromion process.


At below of two fingers, make an upside-down triangle, make V-shape, give the injection in the center of the triangle.



2. Vastus lateralis Muscle


The Vastus lateralis muscle of the thigh is commonly used for immunizations in infants.


To find an area of injection. divided the upper thigh into three parts; the injection given into the outer top portion of the middle section.



3. Ventrogluteal Muscle


Ventrogluteal muscle is the muscles of the hip.


To find the correct area of injection, place your hand on the hip of the person receiving an injection, with the fingers pointing towards it.


Spead your index and middle finger to create  V-shape,  and inject the needle into the middle of that "V shape".



4. Dorsalgluteal Muscle


The dorsal gluteal muscle is a muscle of the buttock.


Note – Keep in mind, there is a risk of potential injury to the sciatic nerve. So, administer injection correct site.



2. Site for Subcutaneous Injection


Subcutaneous injection sites are-


1. Arm; back or side of the upper arm


2. Abdomen; 2-inch area away around the navel


3. Thigh; front of the thigh



For example -  Insulin is administered via the subcutaneous layer.




3. Site for Intravenous Injection


IV injection sites are-


With standard IV administration; a needle is usually inserted into a vein in the wrist, back of the hand elbow, and the outer surface of the foot.


Intravenous injection site most often placed in the back of the hand, on the forearm; inside of the elbow.




4. Sites for Intradermal Injection


ID injection sites are-


1. Upper arm; BCG injection usually left upper arm


2. Forearm; Tuberculin Test and allergy testing 


While administering Injection, Healthcare employees should carefully keep in mind the routes of drug administration according to medical prescription, to avoid medication errors.



What equipment is needed for Injections?



Equipment needed for injection includes; needles, syringes, and catheters.


Know here what are types of syringe tips?


The Luer lock syringe allows easy exchange of needle to syringe and prevents the needle falls off from the syringes. 




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