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Parts of Cannula- Types, Color Coding And Uses

The cannula is a small tube inserted into the body, used for the delivery of liquid or removal of fluid or for the collecting of samples. for an example blood sample.

A cannula is a hollow tube with a sharp, retractable (able to be drawn back ) inner core that can be inserted into a vein, an artery, or another body cavity.

 

IV Cannula


A venous or IV cannulas are inserted into a vein, primarily for the administration of intravenous (IV fluids), for administering drugs, or obtaining blood samples.

 

Healthcare providers must have knowledge about what types of IV fluids given and how to deliver fluid directly to the vein.

Parts of Cannula

 

Cannula consist of:


1.      Flashback Chamber

2.      Needle Grip

3.      Luer Lock Plug

4.      Luer Connector

5.      Valve

6.      Injection Port Cap

7.      Catheter Hub + Wings

8.      Bushing

9.      Catheter

10.    Needle

Parts of Cannula

Types of IV Cannula


There are mainly three types of cannula:


1. Peripheral IV Cannula

2. Central line IV cannula

3. Mid-line IV cannula

 

1. Peripheral IV Cannula


Peripheral IV Cannula is the most commonly used IV cannula, it is placed through the skin into a peripheral vein. A Peripheral IV cannula is attached to an IV catheter. PIC is usually used for emergency room and surgical patients.

The peripheral venous catheter is  primarily used for the administration of medication, fluids, blood products, and blood sampling.

 

2. Central line IV cannula


Central venous catheter, central line, central venous line, central venous access is the type of IV cannula. It is used for that patient who is undergoing prolonged treatments and medication, fluids required to be administered.

Central venous catheter is placed into a large vein in the neck, chest, groin, or arm.

A Central venous catheter, IV cannula is inserted into the jugular vein located in the neck, subclavian vein, or femoral vein located in the groin area. Through the central line, patients get fluids, medicine, blood, or nutrition and it is also used to draw blood.


3. Mid-line IV cannula


Mid-line IV cannula i.e Long peripheral catheter is the IV tube AND placed on a large vein in the upper part of the arm of the patients. It is placed into the peripheral vein. It put into a large vein in the arm and end in a large vein near the heart.


Sizes of IV Cannula


IV Cannula available in different sizes. Different sizes of IV cannula have different color codes to define their size and their usage. The IV cannula gauge generally varies from 14 to 26 gauge. 

The required size of the cannula  is decided on the basis of:


the patient’s condition,

the purpose of the IV cannula and.

the urgency at which the fluid, medication needs to be delivered.


Cannula Gauge size: 14 gauge to 26 gauge with universal color coding for easy recognition of IV cannula.


Cannula Gauge size

The smaller the gauge, wider (diameter) in a cannula, and has the higher flow rate.


IV Cannula Color Code


Cannula injection port caps are color for instant identification of cannula gauge size:

 

Gauge

Color

Code

Recommended Use

Orange

14G

In massive trauma situations, rapid blood transfusions, surgery

Gray

16G

Trauma, surgery, or multiple

Large volume infusions

Green

18G

Blood transfusion, or large

Volume infusions

Pink

20G

Multi-purpose; for medications, hydration, and routine therapies

Blue

22G

Most chemo-infusion; patient with small vein; elderly or pediatric, neonate patient

Yellow

24G

Very fragile veins; elderly or pediatric, neonate  patients

 

The smaller the IV cannula gauge, the slower is the flower the flow rate and higher is the risk of clotting.


22G-25G is recommended for pediatrics.

20G-25G for routine transfusions in adults.

16-18G for rapid transfusions in adults.

 

IV Cannula Size Flow Rate


There are numerous factor that affects fluid flow rates, once the catheter is inserted into a patent. The fluid flow rates listed below are approximate. 

Flow rate also depend upon prescribed therapy and patient need.

 

Gauge

Color

Code

Flow Rate

ml/min

Orange

14G

240ml/min

  Gray

16G

180ml/min

Green

18G

90ml/min

   Pink

20G

60ml/min

   Blue

22G

36ml/min

 Yellow

24G

20ml/min

Violet

26 G

13ml/min

 


Purpose of Cannulation


IV cannulation is a technique in which a cannula is placed inside a vein to provide venous access:


1. For Repeated blood sampling

2. Intravenous (IV) fluid administration

3. intravenous medication administration

4. intravenous (IV)  chemotherapy administration

5. intravenous (IV)  nutritional support

6. intravenous (IV)  blood or blood products administration

7. intravenous (IV) administration of radiological contrast agents for CT/MRI

 

Model of IV Cannula


The IV cannula is available in different types of models which are: 


1. IV Cannula - pen-like model

2. IV Cannula with wings model

3. IV Cannula with injection port model

4. IV Cannula y-type model


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