Intravenous Injection - IV push, IV infusion And Complications

Intravenous (IV Injection)

Intravenous (IV) injection or infusion. This means medication sent directly into your vein using a needle or tube. IV injection is given at a 25-degree angle.

IV administration placed in:

vein in wrist, elbow, back of the hand, and the surface of the foot

Intravenous (iv) injection involves inserting a needle into the vein, allowing the substance directly deliver to bloodstream. this allows medication absorbed more rapidly and avoid the first pass metabolism.


And also used for taking blood products sampling of blood in blood collection tube.

IV Catheter: Standard IV Administration


With standard IV administration, a thin plastic tube called an IV catheter is inserted into your vein. The needle is usually inserted into a vein in your wrist, elbow, or the back of the hand. 

The catheter is introduced into the vein by a needle. IV catheter allows the healthcare providers to give you multiple safe doses of medication without needing to prick with a needle each time.


Intravenous Cannula


Intravenous (IV) cannulation is a technique in which a cannula is placed inside a vein to provide venous access, it allows administration of fluids, medications, parenteral nutrition, chemotherapy, and blood products sampling of blood. 

Healthcare providers should know about the parts of cannula and sizes and uses.

Intravenous Administration

IV Butterfly Catheters


IV Butterfly Catheters or Scalp Vein Sets or butterfly needle or winged infusion set is a device used to insert a vein for giving medications or drawing blood.

Butterfly the needle is a very thin hypodermic needle, has two flexible wings", flexible transparent tubing, and connector.

The connector can be attached to tubing from an infusion pump or IV bag to deliver fluids or medications to the bloodstream Or attach to a vacuum tube or collection bag to draw blood.

Through connector medications can also be delivered via a syringe


Standard IV Catheter

Standard IV the catheter used to two kinds of IV medication administration:

1. IV push

2. IV infusion


1. IV Push

Intravenous or IV push is the rapid administration of the injection. A syringe is inserted into a catheter to quickly send the medication into your bloodstream.

2. IV Infusion

IV infusion is a controlled administration of medication into your bloodstream over time. 

These devices are using for medication administration:

1. Pump infusion

2. Syringe pump

3. Drip infusion


1. Pump infusion

An infusion pump is a medical device that delivers fluids, such as nutrients and medications, into a patient's body in controlled amounts. The infusion pump is attached to your IV line.


2. Syringe pump 


A syringe pump is a small infusion device that is used to gradually administer specific amounts of fluids. Syringe pumps push out fluid via a syringe to obtain a predetermined volume depending on the size of the syringe.


3. Drip infusion

with the help of an IV Tubing set and solution bag. medication and solution drip from a bag and go through a tube and into your catheter.


Types of IV Catheter

There are mainly three types:

1. Peripheral Vein Catheter (PVC)

2. Central Venous Catheter (CVC)

3. Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)


1. Peripheral Vein Catheter (PVC)


Peripheral vein catheter (PVC),  most common site for insertion of an IV catheter is the veins in the arm (peripheral veins). PVC most commonly used intravenous device in hospitalized patients.

PVC is primarily used for therapeutic purposes such as administration of medications, fluids, and/or blood products as well as blood sampling.


2. Central Venous Catheter (CVC)


When a patient has required longer treatment, then use a CVC IV catheter, will be inserted into a larger vein, usually one near the shoulder (subclavian vein) or neck (jugular vein). These types of catheters extend into the tip of the heart (superior vena cave) to allow more direct and faster access to the bloodstream in the administration of medication.


Types of Central Venous Catheter (CVC)


1. Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter


Longer-term central vein catheters can also be inserted into the large vein in the front of the elbow. Which then extends up into the superior vena cava. This type of catheter is referred to as Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC).


2. Tunneled Catheter


With a tunneled catheter, medication can be sent directly into blood vessels in the heart. One end of the catheter is placed into a vein in the neck or chest. The rest catheter is tunneled through the body, with the other end coming out through skin.

3. Implanted Port

Implanted port is located completely beneath the skin. To use this device, a healthcare provider injects medication through the skin into the port, which sends the medication into the bloodstream. Implanted port inserts a catheter into a vein in the neck or chest.


 Drugs Typically Administered by IV

Antibiotics and pain-relieving medication are common, given through IV administration.

1. Antibiotics Drugs: like Gentamicin, Vancomycin (treat bacterial infection)

2. Chemotherapy Drugs: for example Doxorubicin, Cisplatin (slow or stop the growth of cancer cell)


3. Pain Relieving Medications: drug are hydromorphone, morphine (pen control)


4. Drugs used to treat Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) are dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dobutamine


Medical Use of IV Therapy

1. IV Therapy for medications

2. IV Therapy for fluids

3. IV Therapy for nutrition

4. IV Therapy for blood transfusions (through blood transfusion set)


Complication of IV Administration

Generally IV medication is safe, but any incidence leads to mild to severe effects. There are some complication of IV Administration:

1. Risk of Infection: to prevent infection, use an aseptic technique

2. Hematoma (leakage of blood from the vessel into the surrounding soft tissue)


3. Damage of Blood Vessel and injection site


4. Infiltration (medication leaks into the surrounding tissue)


4. Air Embolism

5. Blood Clots

6. Phlebitis (Inflammation of the vein)


7. Thrombophlebitis (inflammation of a vein caused by a blood clot)

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