Parts of Sphygmomanometer - Blood Pressure Monitor

Sphygmomanometer - BP Apparatus


A sphygmomanometer is an instrument used to measure blood pressure which is also known as a BP apparatus blood pressure meter or blood pressure gauge or blood pressure monitor.

The word sphygmomanometer is derived from the Greek word "sphygmos" which means beating of the heart or the pulse.

This device is used to measure one of the primary vital signs; blood pressure.


To know the normal blood pressure, low blood pressure, and high blood pressure, Check out what is blood pressure range is.


The sphygmomanometer instrument has an inflatable cuff that is wrapped around the upper arm and is connected to an apparatus that records pressure.

Measuring unit, for example, aneroid gauge; a manual instrument in which listening with a stethoscope to the brachial artery.


The mechanism for inflation may be operated electrically or manually operated bulb and valve.


Parts of Sphygmomanometer

5 Parts of the sphygmomanometer are-


1. Bladder

2. Cuff

3. Valve

4. Bulb

5. Manometer


Parts of Sphygmomanometer

1. Bladder


The bladder is an inflatable bag, when filled squeeze the arms to block the artery or used to compress the arm to occlude the artery.


2. Cuff


The cuff has an inflatable rubber bladder that is tied around the upper arm.

Cuff is designed to hold the bladder around the upper arm during the measurement. It inflated to stop the flow of blood in the artery. A pressure meter indicates the cuff’s pressure.


3. Valve


Valve allows for controlled deflation of the cuff and it is important for accurate measurement.

Recheck the valve to prevent air from escaping during the air pump.


4. Bulb


A small, handheld air pump inflated the blood pressure inside the cuff.


5. Manometer


It is the part of the sphygmomanometer that measures the blood pressure in mmHg.

Aneroid gauge is a pressure measurement device. It is attached to the cuff with tubing. It is a watch-like movement when the air pressure is applied to the cuff.

In Aneroid device, it converts the cuff pressure to gauge pressure.

Types of Sphygmomanometer


3 major types of sphygmomanometers are –


1. Mercury sphygmomanometer

2. Aneroid sphygmomanometer

3. Digital sphygmomanometer


1. Mercury Sphygmomanometer


Mercury sphygmomanometer used is the most common type of sphygmomanometer.


In this device, the blood pressure reading is measured by looking at the movement of the mercury tube.

Mercury sphygmomanometers manually operated devices consisting of inflatable cuffs that are attached to measuring units with mercury-infused tubes. 


2. Aneroid Sphygmomanometer

The term Aneroid means “without liquid’, this type of BP apparatus doesn’t make use of any mercury.

In the Aneroid device, the cuff is attached to a dial gauge with tubing.

Aneroid gauge head are mechanical parts that convert the cuff pressure into gauge-based reading. 


Types of Aneroid Sphygmomanometer


According to use, there are different types of aneroid sphygmomanometer, they are-


1. Pocket-aneroid sphygmomanometer

2. Palm aneroid sphygmomanometer

3. Clock-style aneroid sphygmomanometer


3. Digital Sphygmomanometer


A digital sphygmomanometer is a sphygmomanometer that uses an electronic pressure sensor to measure blood pressure electronically, readings are presented on a digital display.


Digital sphygmomanometers the most advanced sphygmomanometer. It works of an electronic sensor to measure the blood pressure and the readings are displayed on the digital monitor.



How to Use Sphygmomanometers


Below are the steps to measure the blood pressure-


1. Know basic knowledge of blood pressure readings, normal blood reading is 120/80mmHg.

2. Use proper-sized cuffs

3. Properly place the cuff on the upper arm

4. Press the stethoscope bell over the brachial artery which is below the cuff’s edge


Know the parts of Stethoscope.


5. Inflate the cuff

6. Release the air from the cuff

7. Listen listening with the help of a stethoscope and observe the gauge

8. Note the blood pressure reading


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