Difference between Active and Passive Transport

Active Transport Vs  Passive Transport

In Active transport, the molecules move against the concentration gradient. In Passive transport, the movement of molecules along the concentration gradient.

      Active Transport


      Passive Transport

1. Active Transport, pump molecules through cell membrane against concentration gradient.



1. Passive Transport, allow molecules to pass the cell membrane through concentration gradient.


2. For Active Transport, utilize the cellular energy in form of ATP.


2. For Passive Transport Don’t require cellular energy.


3. Types of Active Transport are Endocytosis, exocytosis, secretion of substance into bloodstream and sodium/potassium pump.


3. Passive transport types are; Diffusion, facilitated diffusion filtration and osmosis.

4. It occurs against the concentration gradient.


4. It occurs along the concentration gradient.


5. From low concentration to high concentration occurs via semi-permeable membrane.


5. From high concentration to low concentration, it occurs even absence of membrane.

6. It is very rapid process. It Allow accumulation of substance in cell.



6. It is comparatively slow process. It doesn’t allow the accumulation of substance in cell.

7. Through Active Transport ions, large molecule, complex sugar, insoluble molecules are transported.



7. Through Passive Transport water soluble molecules like, small monosaccharide, lipid, CO2, oxygen and water are transported.


8. In Active Transport requires carrier protein and they are named as pump.

Known as Primary and secondary active transport.


8. In Passive Transport doesn’t require a carrier protein. They are named as channel.

9. Active transport forces substances/molecules against the concentration gradient with help of ATP energy.

9. Passive transport allows the molecules to pass across the membrane through a concentration channel, no cellular energy required.


10. Active transport flow from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.

10. Passive transport flow from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.



11. Active transport required for the transportation of the molecules such as large molecules, proteins, complex sugars, ions, etc.

11. Passive transport required for the transportation of all soluble molecules, including O2, water, CO2, lipids, hormones, etc.

Passive transport is used to maintain the equilibrium of nutrients, water and gases etc within and outside the cell.

12. Active transport is highly selective.

12.  Passive transport is partly non-selective.


13. Example of Active Transport is; Uptake of glucose in the human intestine works on the principle of active transport.


13. Example of Passive transport is; transport of molecules in the kidneys and the liver,

And Diffusion of gases in alveoli of the lungs when they exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide.

14. Active transportation process is affected by temperature.



14. Passive transportation is not affected by temperature.

15. Metabolic inhibitors can influence the active transport process and stop active transport.


15. Passive transportation is not affected by metabolic inhibitors.


16. Active transport is a vital process because it allows the cell to move substances against the concentration gradient.

16. Passive Transport is a physical process.

17. Active transport process reduces or stops as the level of oxygen content is reduced.

17. Passive transport process is not affected by the oxygen content.

18. Specific carrier proteins are required for active transport which pumps the molecules upwards.


18. No carrier proteins are required for passive transport. Molecules travel downward directly.

19. Insufficient presence of oxygen, Active transport is inhibited.

19. Passive transport is not at all influenced by the level of oxygen in the cell.

20. Active transport requires ATP energy for the movement of molecules.

 20. Passive transport does not require ATP energy for the movement of molecules.

21. Categories of active transport are; Primary active transport and secondary active transport

21. Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and filtration are types of passive transport.


Also, check out here the Difference between Osmosis and Diffusion.

Post a Comment