gustatory system

 Gustatory system

Senses of gustatin (taste) and olfaction (smell); chemoreceptor

Human detect taste with taste receptors cell. These are clustered in taste buds.

Taste buds, sensory receptor organs for taste, located primarily in oral cavity.

Taste buds contain sensory receptors (chemoreceptor) that found in papillae of tongue and widely distributed in epithelia of tongue, soft palate, pharynx, epiglottis.

Taste bud consist of small sensory nerve ending of glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), facial nerve (VIl), Vagus nerve (X), 

Sensory receptor are stimulated by chemicals that enters taste pores dissolved in saliva.

Nerve impulse are generated and conducted along glossopharyngeal, facial and Vagus nerves before synapsing in medulla and thalamus.

Their final destination is taste area in parietal lobe of cerebral cortex where taste is perceived.

Structure of taste bud

Each taste bud having small pore like opening surface of tongue taste pore.

Nearly 10, 000 taste buds of young adult,  most are one tongue.

Each taste bud consist 50-100 epithelial cells.

1. Taste cell

Chemoreceptors occupy central portion of bud.

All gustatory cells project gustatory hairs from taste pore.

Gustatory hair receptor membrane of gustatory cells.

2. Supporting cells

Found between taste receptor cells.

Support gustatory cells.

Make supporting capsule for bud prevent damage.

3. Basal cells

Found periphery of taste bud.

Regenerated every 7- 10 days.

Develop into gustatory receptors.

Pathophysiology of taste

Activation of taste receptors (taste pore- gustatory hair - gustatory cells)

Gustatory pathway (impulse); Vll, lX, X.

Sensory nerve fibers synapse in medulla oblongata and thalamus

Taste perceived in parietal area of brain and also hypothalamus and limbic system give rise conscious perception of taste, what we taste.

Types of taste

Salty; table salt

Sour;  produced by acids

Sweet; sweat substance

Bitter; caused by alkaloids

Umami (meaty)

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