bipolar disorder

Bipolar affective disorder/Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder is mood disorder/ affective disorder

Bipolar disorder causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania)and lows (depression)

Types of bipolar disorder

1. Bipolar l disorder

One or more manic episodes, with or without depressive episodes occurring.

2. Bipolar ll disorder

Characteriized by shifting between less severe hypomanic episodes and depressive episodes.

3. Bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS)

When symptoms not fit other three categories but still involve episodes of unusual manic mood.

4. Cyclothymic disorder or cyclothymia

Repeated mood shifts between depressive and hypomanic that persist for more than two year.

Symptoms of manic episodes (mania and hypomania)

1. Euphoria

2. Rapid speech

3. Excessive angry/irritability/agitation/risky behaviors

4. Hyperactivity (ADHD)

5. Impulsive behaviors

6. Psychosis (Hallucination or delusion)

7. Abnormally upbeat, jump or weird

8. Increased activity energy

9. Unusual talkativeness

10. Poor decision making

11. Exaggerated sense of well being

12. Decreased need for sleep

13. Racing thoughts

14. Distractibility

Symptoms of depressive episodes (major depressive episodes)

1. Persistant sadness 

2. Depressed mood

3. Loss of interest in activity

4. Feeling no pleasure

5. Suicidal thoughts/planned/thinking/attempting

6. Either insomnia or sleeping too much

7. Fatigue or loss of energy

8. Feeling of worthlessness

9. Decrease ability to think/concentrate

10. Either restlessness or slowed behaviors

Causes of bipolar disorder

1. Hereditary traits

More prone in first degree relative

2. Biological traits

Imbalance neurotransmitter

 3. Brain chemical and neurological issue

Loss or damage brain cell in Hippocampus.

4. Hormonal issue

5. Environmental factors

Extreme stress

Significant loss

Substance abuse

Physical or sexual abuse

Physical illness

6. Mitochondrial problem

7. Brain structure and function

Psychodynamics of Bipolar Disorder

Early life experience (for example; struggling with grief and loss)

Formation of dysfunctional beliefs, lack of empathy

Critical events, self-hatered

Beliefs Activated

Negative automatic thoughts

Sleep deprivation

Symptoms of mania and depression

Bipolar Graph

Diagnostic evaluation DSM-5 diagnostic criteria

Bipolar l disorder 

1. Current or recent major depressive episodes.

2. Previous manic episodes or mixed episodes (at least one)

3. Mood disorder not due to schizoaffective disorder or part of other disorder such as schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, delusional disorder, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified.

Bipolar ll disorder

1. Current or history of major depressive episodes (one or more)

2. Current or history of hypomanic episodes (at least one)

3. No history of manic episode or mixed episode.

4. Mood symptoms not due schizoaffective disorder or part of other disorder.

5. Symptoms causes significant distress as well as impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

6. Current episode meets appropriate criteria for hypomania or depression.

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